Data sources

The average efficiency of European Power production (eta)

Annex VII of the RES Directive defines the calculation for the RES contribution for heating.

It reads

ERES = Qusable * (1 – 1/SPF)

Qusable = the estimated total usable heat delivered by heat pumps fulfilling the criteria referred to in Article 5(4), implemented as follows:

  • Only heat pumps for which SPF > 1,15 * 1/η shall be taken into account,
  • SPF = the estimated average seasonal performance factor for those heat pumps,
  • η is the ratio between total gross production of electricity and the primary energy consumption for electricity production and shall be calculated as an EU average based on Eurostat data.

Eurostat is publishing the most recent value for eta on its website (click on this link to get the Eurostat table with the full calculation).

The guidelines for the calculation method in full detail can be found here (click on this link).



The EurObserv’ER ‘The State of Renewable Energies in Europe’ features renewable energy technology in all 27 European Union Member States, the European Union renewable energy shares, including employment, turnover and highlights of seven EU regions successfully attracting investments in renewable energy.


The bi-lingual report ‘The State of Renewable Energies in Europe’ is available for free download here (PDF, English/French, 137 pages, 6.2 MB)


Key data for the European Union (EU-28):

- Renewable energy share of gross final energy consumption: 16.7% in 2015 (12.4% in 2010)

- Renewable energy based employment: 1.139 million people in 2015 (0.91 million in 2009)

- Renewable energy generated economic turnover: 153 billion euro (120 billion euro in 2009) 


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - EDITION 2016 16th EurObserv’ER Report